THE EMPIRE AND THE FIVE KINGS America’s Abdication and the Fate of the World By Bernard-Henri Lévy
GULLIBLE SUPERPOWER U.S. Support for Bogus Foreign Democratic Movements By Ted Galen Carpenter
The American foreign policy establishment is two years into a prolonged existential crisis. It is watching a president spurn its expertise, attack its institutions and ridicule its most cherished assumptions. It gets much of the blame for a quarter-century of flailing hegemony, one characterized by, depending on whom you ask, too much foreign intervention (Kosovo, Iraq, Libya) or too little (Rwanda, Syria, Iran). In introspective moments, it asks itself whether anything it says or does matters at all.
But for all the turmoil and torment, that establishment is in fact converging around a stronger consensus than any it has held since the Cold War. After an era of uncontested American dominance, the thinking goes, we have entered a new era of rivalry. Or as the Trump administration’s National Security Strategy puts it, “After being dismissed as a phenomenon of an earlier century, great power competition returned.” Different camps and thinkers define the causes and contours of this rivalry in different ways: They may see the biggest challenge in Beijing or in Moscow or in Tehran or somewhere else. But the basic point has become uncontroversial.
What to do about it is a more contentious matter. Should the United States step up and fight for its interests and values, or hunker down and restrain its ambitions? Should it defend fellow democracies and reassure allies, or cede authority to other powers, even if that means some outcomes it might not like? Should it muster the resolve to do more or accept the necessity of doing less?
Two new books stake out positions at opposite poles of the debate. In “The Empire and the Five Kings,” the French philosopher Bernard-Henri Lévy — a “committed intellectual,” in his own description — proclaims that the United States, now in a moment of doubt and retreat, must again take a stand for freedom. “Do not give in to discouragement,” exhorts the man usually referred to as B.H.L. “Do not become resigned.” In “Gullible Superpower,” Ted Galen Carpenter, a scholar at the libertarian Cato Institute, counters that nearly every American attempt to take such a seemingly heroic stand founders on messy foreign realities. The better course is a “return to an earlier, more prudent, realistic and sensible policy tradition.”
In the 1990s, at the apex of American dominance, one of Lévy’s compatriots dubbed the United States a “hyperpower.” It was said sneeringly, but Lévy embraces it: The United States “is an empire, if you will, but a recalcitrant one, whose nobility has always been to balk at imperialism.” His celebration of this American empire is soaring and sincere — “the second home of every free person on the planet” — and often incomprehensible, laced with name-dropping digressions, circuitous analogies and mixed metaphors.
Lévy begins and ends his book with the story of the Kurds, who joined with the United States and its allies to fight ISIS but then never got the backing they hoped for in support of their own independence. Despite his own efforts to rally American and European policymakers, the Kurds’ “sister democracies … uttered not a word as Kurdish houses in Kirkuk were gassed and ransacked, women raped, people tortured.” In recounting this tragedy, Lévy reflects not at all on the last time he made himself a player in such a cause: his effort, in 2011, to persuade the United States and Europe to intervene in Libya. That action stopped a possible massacre in Benghazi and helped bring about the murderous Muammar el-Qaddafi’s downfall, but it also stoked a bloody civil war that continues today. Lévy is less interested in weighing consequences than he is in celebrating the purity of intent, the nobility of the cause, the heroism of the stand.
That, to Carpenter, is exactly where American foreign policy has gone wrong. Since the 1980s, as he tells it, the United States has repeatedly fallen for the charm offensives of foreign actors — insurgent groups, protest movements, dissidents — who con Washington into reckless action. What Lévy sees as a virtuous hegemon, Carpenter sees as a naïve and hapless superpower playing the sucker to “foreign factions … adept at exploiting Americans’ sincere desire for the spread of enlightened liberal capitalist ideals.”
Carpenter marshals example after cringe-inducing example of American politicians and commentators hailing unsavory foreign movements as the “moral equal of our founding fathers” — as Ronald Reagan said of a Nicaraguan contra army led largely by officers loyal to a fallen dictator. In various Cold War proxy battles, in the Iraq war, in the debate over Syria, in the Libya intervention — again and again, predictions of a peaceful democratic future have yielded dismal results.B:
www3438com铁算盘资料【如】【果】【不】【是】【胡】【烦】【一】【及】【时】【砍】【下】【了】【张】【强】【的】【那】【届】【手】【指】，【恐】【怕】【这】【个】【时】【候】【魏】【有】【成】【就】【已】【经】【一】【命】【呜】【呼】【了】。 【胸】【口】【上】【的】【伤】【疤】【只】【留】【下】【了】【浅】【浅】【的】【一】【道】，【双】【臂】【整】【个】【被】【削】【平】，【伤】【口】【甚】【至】【让】【人】【不】【忍】【去】【看】！ 【魏】【有】【成】【脸】【色】【苍】【白】【直】【接】【昏】【迷】【了】【过】【去】，【何】【苗】【苗】【立】【即】【过】【来】【架】【住】【魏】【有】【成】。 “【快】！【你】【们】【先】【去】【书】【屋】【帮】【他】【的】【伤】【口】【做】【一】【下】【紧】【急】【处】【理】，【也】【治】【一】【治】【自】【己】【的】【伤】
【像】【他】【们】【这】【种】【大】【人】【物】，【最】【怕】【的】【不】【是】【工】【作】【犯】【罪】，【毕】【竟】【亡】【羊】【补】【牢】，【为】【时】【不】【晚】。【最】【怕】【是】【黑】【历】【史】，【不】【良】【前】【科】，【一】【生】【污】【点】，【难】【以】【抬】【头】，【光】【明】【正】【大】【的】【做】【人】【啊】。 【如】【果】【自】【己】【的】【亲】【人】【真】【的】【干】【了】【违】【法】【犯】【纪】【之】【事】，【自】【己】【毫】【不】【知】【情】，【徘】【徊】【在】【外】，【只】【是】【上】【头】【会】【放】【过】【他】【吗】？【会】【让】【他】【全】【身】【而】【退】，【不】【留】【任】【何】【污】【名】【秽】【语】【吗】？ 【想】【想】【都】【是】【不】【可】【能】【的】。 【杜】【晨】
【随】【后】【那】【马】【车】【上】【下】【来】【一】【个】【人】，【那】【人】【周】【大】【富】【再】【熟】【悉】【不】【过】【了】，【可】【不】【就】【是】【聂】【府】【的】【聂】【管】【事】【吗】？ 【这】【位】【管】【事】【还】【是】【周】【大】【富】【攀】【不】【上】【的】【那】【位】，【他】【们】【最】【多】【只】【能】【接】【触】【接】【触】【聂】【府】【的】【小】【管】【事】【而】【已】。 【周】【大】【富】【淡】【定】【不】【了】【了】，【直】【接】【从】【马】【车】【上】【下】【来】。 “【聂】【府】【的】【管】【事】，【怎】【么】【也】【来】【了】？” 【周】【管】【事】【哆】【嗦】【了】【下】，【努】【力】【描】【补】，【尤】【抱】【着】【一】【丝】【希】【望】【开】【口】，【说】【道】，
【小】【地】【精】【睁】【开】【了】【自】【己】【的】【眼】【睛】，【他】【还】【是】【安】【稳】【地】【趴】【在】【少】【年】【阿】【狗】【的】【背】【上】，【通】【过】【阿】【狗】【的】【行】【进】【方】【式】【不】【难】【判】【断】【出】，【他】【们】【此】【刻】【已】【经】【攀】【爬】【过】【了】【大】【蛇】【的】【身】【体】，【来】【到】【了】【山】【脉】【的】【第】【三】【层】。 【但】【是】【易】【忠】【仁】【一】【点】【儿】【开】【心】【的】【情】【绪】【都】【没】【有】，【他】【此】【刻】【心】【里】【有】【的】，【只】【有】【深】【深】【的】【恐】【惧】。 【因】【为】【就】【在】【刚】【才】，【他】【突】【然】【想】【到】【了】【一】【个】【极】【为】【恐】【怖】【的】【问】【题】——【当】“【它】”【的】【被】【动】www3438com铁算盘资料“【不】【重】【要】【了】，【楚】【枫】【有】【何】【机】【遇】，【那】【是】【他】【的】【事】【情】。” “【无】【论】【他】【有】【何】【机】【遇】，【或】【者】【是】【有】【怎】【样】【的】【秘】【密】，【但】【今】【日】【他】【救】【了】【我】【们】【的】【性】【命】，【这】【却】【是】【不】【争】【的】【事】【实】。” “【今】【日】【若】【不】【是】【他】，【我】【们】【都】【要】【死】。” “【甚】【至】，【他】【为】【了】【救】【我】【们】，【也】【得】【罪】【了】【洞】【察】【天】【师】。” “【这】【份】【恩】【情】，【我】【们】【不】【能】【忘】。” 【龙】【晓】【晓】【说】【道】。 “【公】【主】【殿】【下】【说】【的】【极】
“【差】【不】【多】【了】。” 【断】【行】【山】【内】。 【叶】【小】【强】【透】【过】【墙】【壁】【上】【的】【画】【面】，【眼】【中】【闪】【烁】【过】【几】【分】【光】【芒】。 “【你】【小】【子】【可】【真】【的】【想】【好】【了】，【到】【时】【候】【真】【要】【是】【控】【制】【不】【住】，【老】【夫】【可】【不】【会】【出】【手】。”【一】【旁】【的】【老】【头】【斜】【睨】【道】。 “【到】【时】【候】【还】【真】【的】【说】【不】【定】【呢】。”【叶】【小】【强】【丝】【毫】【不】【在】【意】，【嘴】【角】【含】【笑】【地】【说】【了】【一】【句】，【身】【影】【便】【直】【接】【消】【失】【在】【山】【洞】【内】。 “【你】【看】【看】【这】【小】【子】。”
“【不】【管】【我】【说】【什】【么】，【你】【都】【不】【会】【帮】【我】【是】【不】【是】！”【西】【澜】【冷】【笑】【着】，【慢】【慢】【的】【从】【地】【上】【起】【来】，【幽】【怨】【的】【目】【光】【毒】【蛇】【一】【般】【盯】【着】【楚】【楚】。 【楚】【楚】【冷】【冷】【的】【挑】【眉】，【眼】【波】【平】【静】，【根】【本】【就】【没】【有】【将】【她】【的】【恨】【放】【在】【心】【上】，【语】【气】【平】【静】【的】【说】【道】：“【不】【是】【我】【不】【帮】，【是】【我】【帮】【不】【了】，【当】【你】【们】【处】【心】【积】【虑】【的】【想】【着】【做】【这】【些】【事】【情】【的】【话】，【就】【应】【该】【想】【到】【了】【如】【果】【失】【手】【会】【怎】【么】【样】！” “【你】【说】